Since the original post is about to vanish off the main page, thought it was time to answer the questions. Kudos to Don for answering two of the questions.
Question 1: CVB41-43. USS Midway, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Coral Sea. The B stood for Battle since each of these carriers were supposed to carry 137 airplanes.
Question 2: The signal over the TBS system for Operation Torch was 'Play Ball!'
Question 3: CV-4 USS Ranger stayed in the Atlantic. At under 15,000 tons she was judged too small for the Pacific.
Question 4: Don got this one almost right. Only thing he missed was the Z option. The Z option as John R. Beaman, Jr. in Messerschmitt Bf-109 in Action Part 2 details means this Friedrick is equipped with the GM-1 boost[nitrous], a wider bladed VDM propeller, and a deeper oil cooler.
Question 5: The AD-4NA Skyraider resulted because the US Navy suffered a shortage of normal AD-4 Skyraiders. So they pressed into service the night attack AD-4N as a normal daylight bomber, so the AD-4NA was born.
Question 6: USS Gambier Bay was Kaiser's bonus baby flattop to the US Navy.
Question 7: Twice - ABDA Afloat DD USS Stewart and after Battle of Santa Cruz when the IJN tried to take in tow USS Hornet before sinking her with two torpedoes.
Question 8: Don got the Ten Ring on this one. A sawdust and ice concoction called Pycrete was proposed during the height of the U-boat scourge as a way for the RN to build aircraft carriers. The idea got a cold shoulder because American industry started churning out escort carriers en masse for the US Navy and the Royal Navy, the British skippers were miffed because their cabins were very austere as compared to regular RN ships.
Question 9: In RN FAA service a Martlet was simply the Grumman F4F Wildcat under a different name. When the Hellcat came into service, the FAA simply called them Hellcats.
Question 10: A PBJ is not a peanut-butter and jelly sandwich. It was the US Navy called a North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber.